Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Viaje al …. Internet Arcade. Origen, lenguas, tradiciones e historia de los indios de las Antillas Mayores y las Lucayas". Full text of "Bulletin of the Pan American Union". Home current Features Pricing. Let us remember that the letters of recommendation Cervantes carried with him when he was captured would be read in different ways by Christians versus Muslims.
These data reinforce the likelihood that Cervantes and his friends—all elite captives—would have been informed of the secret negotiations that took place the year before in Algiers. John of an illustrious Neapolitan family who had been a captive in Algiers for many years. He describes this feat a year later: [Miguel de Cervantes] deseando servir a Dios y a su Majestad y hacer bien a cristianos, muy secretamente dio parte de este negocio a muchos caballeros, letrados, sacerdotes y cristianos que en este Argel estaban cautivos [.
His disclosures were immediately confirmed by the real author of the treason, Spanish Dominican Dr. Juan Blanco de Paz. Born in Extremadura of Judeo-Morisco parents, it appears this Dominican acted out of resentment because he was not accepted as part of the fugitive group Canavaggio, Cervantes, Hasan Pasha issued an edict of death for anyone caught sheltering the runaway. With his usual courage, Cervantes refused this proposal. The scene is recounted by Cervantes himself in his deposition. Refusing to betray his companions, Cervantes told the pasha that he was to blame for this affair, along with four other gentlemen who had just been liberated and who were to go in the vessel.
In this seizure, the corsair acquired as his share of the booty Knight of St. Numerous renegades had been seized as children, as Canavaggio suggests, at sea or on the Mediterranean islands and Spanish coasts. The anecdote reveals the sympathy existing between Christian slaves and renegades who, in spite of their apostasy, often kept their regional or national solidarities.
Of cases of renegades studied by the historians, half were under the age of fifteen when seized by Barbary corsairs, and a quarter were between fifteen and nineteen years old. Although these numbers are certainly incomplete, they illustrate the phenomenon of converting Christian children to Islam in early modern times.
These levies seemed to respond, as the Benassars demonstrate, to a deliberate wish to incorporate Christian children, converted into Muslims, into a social system ready to receive them In this way were constituted the cosmopolitan societies of the Maghribi corsair cities, especially of Algiers, a meeting point for all races and religions, where the autochthonous citizens shared power with the exogenous population.
This Cervantine story regarding five young renegades exemplifies the point. Many slaves opted for apostasy when their hope of being ransomed collapsed and they faced the prospect of eternal slavery in Barbary. The incitations to convert to Islam were continual for such captives as artillerymen or gunners, and captains, pilots, or administrators, who were often incorporated into the Maghribi armies, corsair fleets, and urban economy or administration. Eisenberg surmises that Cervantes was often enticed by Spanish or Italian renegades, Turks, or Moors to obtain freedom and prestige through his adoption of Islam.
Nevertheless, staying in Algiers as a renegade would have meant first, for Cervantes, making a living directly or indirectly from the commerce in human beings, a parasitic enterprise he despised, and second, abandoning his literary activities—his language, his poetry, his books—and the lively intellectual world of sixteenth-century Spain into which he plunged immediately after his return Eisenberg, — El trato de Argel stages an enlightening dialogue between an autobiographical character named Saavedra and a Spanish captive named Pedro, who has decided to apostatize and become a Turk. As discussed in chapter 3, centered on El trato de Argel and other Cervantine works, the controversy that brings these two characters together, as well as the inner conflict of the captive Saavedra—who is tempted to apostatize to gain freedom and a better life in Algiers—possibly speaks of an authentic inner debate of the future author, a wrenching debate later projected onto the stage.
Summary In this historical voyage through the sixteenth-century Mediterranean, we have explored the Habsburg-Ottoman conflicts that led to the constitution of the Turkish-Algerian regency in the Maghrib and, later, to the consolidation of the city of Algiers as both the most celebrated and the most dreaded corsair center of the Mare Nostrum. The recovery of Antonio de Sosa as the author of Topographia, e historia general de Argel, a seventeenth-century treatise attributed to Fray Diego de Haedo for centuries, is one of the highlights of this chapter.
The next chapter recreates the atmosphere of Algiers in the second half of the s, especially for the elite captives who were up for ransom, and studies the views of other Christian slaves and clerics who knew and befriended Cervantes during his Algerian imprisonment. The text on the left margin describes the landing place and the route used by Charles V when he set out to besiege the city. The drawing shows the massive city walls, several detached forts and, in the city center, various public buildings and mosques, including the houses of the citizens, arranged in a rather schematic manner.
Algiers is represented as a medieval European city, surrounded by four forts, while the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and the boot of Italy appear to be very close to North Africa. Legend: Meso di Algeri. Bottom left: A. The initials A. Vol 1, Plate I, no. Judging from the inaccuracy of this map, he undoubtedly received outdated and incomplete information. The city in this engraving appears to be much smaller than it actually was in The clamor of battle is represented by the cannon fire and armed soldiers on the right of the city walls and by the Imperial armada, on the left.
Vol 1, Plate VI, no. A view of the port and city of Algiers reflecting its Islamic character, especially in the manner of the homes descending from the high ground to the heart of the city near the waterfront. The concise topographic key identifies a guarding galliot in the port 2 ; the fort of Babbazon [Bab Azoun] 5 and the gate of Bab Azoun 15 on the left; several Janissary barracks 6 ; and on the right, slaves carrying stone Mikel de Epalza and Juan Bautista Vilar, 2 vols.
Capriolo: Ritratti di cento capitani ilustri. Rome, , fol. Certainly, this history begs to be written. Known as the father of Sicilian poetry, Antonio Veneziano was captured in April , while en route to Spain from Palermo. His fame as a poet and scholar known for his translations of Latin epigrams into elegant Italian prose certainly attracted Cervantes.
Other poems composed by Cervantes in Algiers as early as , and dedicated to his companion of captivity, Italian jurist Bartholomeo Ruffino de Chiambery, confirm this facet of the writer, the lover of poetry. That this investigation was extremely important for Sosa is certain, for he overcame enormous difficulties to present his deposition. Instead, on October 22, , after the inquest had been formerly closed by Fray Juan Gil, Sosa managed to send an affidavit composed in his own hand.
This forced Fray Juan Gil to reopen the investigation to append the new testimony, as can be deduced from the postscript in which he testifies that he recognizes Dr. An ecclesiastic related to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Malta, Dr. Antonio de Sosa was apparently also a doctor in canon law. The title of doctor, awarded only to law or canon law graduates in Salamanca, the equivalent title for theologians was maestro or magister , was a rare distinction in early modern Spain and Portugal. In strictly academic terms, the title of doctor was not a higher degree than that of the licentia docendi, because it did not require any further study, but rather a title of honor conferred on certain holders of the licentia.
Yet only a small minority of letrados ever became doctors of law. Sosa might have studied at the University of Salamanca, a Spanish institution favored by Portuguese students, or at that of Coimbra, Portugal, which also offered studies in canon law and law. Launched in the last days of March from Barcelona, this galley set sail for Valletta Malta , separating itself from two other galleys of the Order of St.
John that continued on their own toward Valletta. Some of the sailors who escaped in the moment of the corsair attack spoke of increasingly strong winds and rough seas that swept over the galley continuously, to the point that the crew had to throw the oars, the sails, and many firearms into the sea. The surviving passengers, including Andreas de Sosa, listed as a brother of Antonio de Sosa, a good number of Knights of St. John, and others who were to become novitiate knights in Valletta, were taken as captives to Algiers.
I was captured on that galley. We must presume that after his release from captivity in , Sosa visited Haedo senior, who was then Inquisitor, in Palermo Sicily and left his manuscript with him. It is likely that Sosa died in the following year or two, however, and his work remained with the Haedos, uncle and nephew. Yet the book took a long time to appear. In this dedication, Haedo junior makes himself the coauthor of the work allegedly composed by Haedo senior with information received from various captives 10— Seven more years would pass before Topographia, e historia general de Argel would finally be published in , after the death of Archbishop Haedo in Thirty years thus elapsed after Sosa entrusted his manuscript to the archbishop of Palermo Camamis, — As mentioned earlier, the attribution of these colloquies to Sosa is not new.
Antonio de Sosa was the author of the notes that helped Diego de Haedo compose his Topographia. This renegade had converted from Judaism to Islam, then to Christianity, only to return to Islam again. His conversions recall those of the early modern Mediterranean men who lived astride the frontiers, obtaining their power from life on the edge.
As the passage suggests, Mahamed may have been also involved in usury. The Jews of Algiers indeed managed the mint, minting coins of gold, silver, or bronze. The Alcaides in Algiers were those who governed the lands and towns subject to Turkish rule, with their districts, although the title was kept by those who administered these districts for some time. Such a title was also given to anyone who held a public post in the city municipality, or in the house of the pasha. Two Jewish communities coexisted in these cities, each one keeping its language—Arabic or Spanish—its rituals and juridical traditions, and its synagogues.
Numerous exiles brought with them their libraries and other precious objects. After becoming beylerbey in , Hasan Veneciano proceeded to govern aggressively with the exclusive aim of increasing his personal fortune. Elevating his percentage in the share of the corsair booty from five to seven percent, Hasan also augmented taxes enormously and seized most of the captives held for ransom from their masters. These acts would eventually lead to a rebellion of the janissaries, who requested the sultan to remove Hasan from office.
One can surmise that Hasan increased the price of the captives, forcing Mahamed to pay him a sizable quota of their ransom. At the same time, the public distrust felt for Alcaide Mahamed in Algiers discloses the social misgiving that paradoxically kept the renegades at bay. In contrast, they stayed in a narrow social and political space that was their own, one particularly closed in regard to the rest of Muslim society. Can there be cruelty or evil such as this? How captives were treated, in effect, depended on who their owners were.
Some private owners in Algiers kept their captives fettered in dungeons; others regarded their slaves as members of their households whose living arrangements depended on their status in the house. Historian Helen G. The sufferings of Christian captives, especially their spiritual sorrows, are discussed in depth in chapter 3, dedicated to El trato de Argel.
This would explain the excessive brutality on the galleys, where most of the corsairs were renegades. As for the Jews who owned Christian slaves, Sosa claims that they usually did not mistreat them, because they feared that their captives would complain to the beylerbey about being abused, in which case the ruler would seize them.
In chapter 1 we discussed the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, a Christian military institution established in Malta in by Charles V, after the loss of Rhodes to the Ottomans. From this island the Christian knights sailed the entire western Mediterranean in pursuit of Muslim ships—Ottoman galleons or Algerian light vessels—that they captured and took back to Valletta. The Order of St. John of Malta was divided into three classes: knights, chaplains, and sergeants of arms or serving brethren religious men but not priests who served the knights either at war or in the hospital.
John as a novitiate knight was preceded by production of proofs of nobility, the examination of which gave rise to an inquest Sire, The average knight spent years in Malta serving on the numerous congregations that administered the order, and above all—if he could afford the expense involved—seeking the command of a galley or sailing ship, which was the most conclusive title of all Sire, John in the quality of knights ascribed to the Priory of Portugal.
This means that the Sosa brothers were Portuguese, because to belong to any priory of the order, one had to have been born in that particular nation. There appears to be an error, however, in these data. John on August 21, , after being liberated from captivity, his brother Emanuel de Sosa Coutinho, also captured on the San Pablo, was never received as a knight of Malta.
Cervantes mentions this specifically in El trato de Argel. The writer would later turn Manuel de Sosa Coutinho into a Portuguese character in Persiles, where he has him die of unrequited love. As for Dr. His profession as a knight in , when he would have been 21 to 24 years old, would make him 58 to 61 years old in , which seems plausible given the respect with which Dr. This conjecture, however, is problematic, for Dr.
Sosa is never mentioned in any documents as a Knight of St. Hence, until other documents are found in the archives of Malta on Sicily, we may surmise that Dr. Sosa might have been an ecclesiastic related to the Order of St. John of Malta. Paul and St. Jerome to St. Augustine, to name only a few. Antonio de Sosa, a captive in Algiers, seems to have been made in Nevertheless, the Order of St. Antonio de Sosa for corsair Arnaut and to advise them as to the convenience of accepting such a deal. Nevertheless, he would be freed at the end of In effect, Dr.
Several affidavits, subscribed in December and January and February , show Dr. After February , we lose track of Dr. Sosa, because he died probably at that point or soon after, and his monumental work, left in the hands of archbishop Haedo, appeared thirty years later under the name of Diego de Haedo. Both Sosa and Cervantes were elite captives, held for exorbitant ransoms, the first, because he was probably a member of the Order of Malta, whose usually rich and belligerent members were the scourge of the Algerian corsairs; the second, because he was mistakenly identified as an important personage, close to Don Juan de Austria.
Sosa, as we know, was the household slave of renegade Mahamed, who kept him chained in a room and sometimes hired him out to the municipality of Algiers for construction work. The cleric had two companions of captivity—another ecclesiastic and a Knight of St. Was Cervantes obliged to fend for himself, like other captives?
Did he earn money in secretarial work, transcribing documents or writing letters for other captives? These questions remain open. The names and identities of some of these callers, many of whom were Christian slaves who reported to Sosa about the daily happenings in Algiers, and the frequent displacements of these captives, including Cervantes, evoke a universe where communications appeared to be fluid, where conversations and encounters between the Muslim and Christian sides seemed quite free.
The consequences of these interactions cannot be underestimated for Cervantes. Even if these visits were stretched over a period of four years, we may surmise that they were representative of the life of elite Christian captives in Algiers at the end of the sixteenth century. On at least two occasions, Cervantes invited Sosa to participate in an escape. If these claims underline the deep friendship and affinities that linked Antonio de Sosa and Miguel de Cervantes, they also reveal the profound respect felt by Christian captives for the ecclesiastic, a central figure among the enslaved community of Algiers.
As I have shown in these pages, slaves and renegades from all social strata and conditions visited Antonio de Sosa continually and consulted him on crucial questions often involving issues of life and death. The book Sosa is then reading tells the life of St. Paulino, bishop of Nola, a friend of St. Fourth-century St.
Augustine and St. Gregory and to numerous Greek and Roman authors whose works he probably cites by heart. In spite of his imprisonment, moreover, Sosa took time to study Algerian society and to interview many renegades about Maghribi history. The meticulous Sosa, in effect, recalled each and every part of the medicines prescribed by the marabout, which involved a red rooster, cooked in a certain way, and then placed with its head, feathers, and entrails in a special pot next to the river.
The passage gives Sosa the opportunity to denounce Algerian medicine, which he deems to be nothing but fraud. These anecdotes illuminate a complex cultural network in Algiers. The discussion on books that opens this work not only echoes the praise of books made by Don Quijote but also suggests that madness can be caused by reading gentile books. After a terrible assault, the French soldiers took the city of Pavia, killing everyone at hand. The message is clear: Like the sweet medicines drunk by the soldiers, pagan or questionable books could cause madness and even death.
Granted, this is a Renaissance topic, one particularly exploited by Golden Age Spanish writers. Para este efeto se plantan las alamedas, se buscan las fuentes, [. That is why poplar groves are planted, springs are made into fountains,. While books were probably scarce in Algiers, in spite of the numerous volumes captured from Christian ships and galleons, many Spanish and Italian captives were men of letters, as was presumably the Morisco educated in Fez who read Leo Africanus.
Such a view, of course, was that of many early modern Europeans who represented Turks and Moors as the embodiment of lust and barbaric ignorance. This point may be linked to one more aspect of Western stereotyping, the presentation of Saracens, Moors, and Turks as incarnations of evil. The stereotype of the devilish Moor or cruel Turk was often employed by the Europeans to demonstrate the iniquities of Islam and to portray Muslims as agents of Satan.
The case of Antonio de Sosa is a special one. If it is true that his captivity was one of the worst seen in Algiers, Sosa was also a fanatically religious man, determined to prove the evils of Islam and the tortures perpetrated by the Algerians on their slaves. Hasan Pasha was also described as a cultured man, although neither Cervantes nor Sosa mentions this. His arrival was received with optimism by the principal Spanish agents in the city. The five Gasparo Corso brothers were important Corsican merchants who ran an agency that coordinated diplomatic activities between the northern Mediterranean states and the Muslim countries.
Their headquarters were in Valencia, a meeting point for diplomats and couriers across the Mediterranean. The agency engaged in the translation of dispatches for various courts and in negotiations over commercial transactions between Europe and the Islamic world. Could we infer that in his encounters with Cervantes, Hasan also used the Tuscan language, which Cervantes knew from his travels and sojourns in Italy?
This approximation to the renegade ruler focuses instead on aspects of his culture and his relation with influential Turks and Europeans. Sobretodo es gran soldado, liberal, sabio, compuesto, de mil gracias adornado. He who aspires to be King of Fez, a very famous Moor, well versed and conscientious in his doctrine and perverse law. He sleeps on a bed on high and he eats at a table, seated in Christian style. Above all, he is a great soldier, liberal, wise, composed, adorned by a thousand graces.
The vivid description of the future sultan suggests that Cervantes might have met this famous personage in Algiers. The question of books and letters in this multiethnic city is a complex one, especially so because of the lack of reliable information on the subject. As it turns out, if we compare the literary and intellectual atmosphere of the most important Maghribi cities, particularly Algiers, in the sixteenth century, with the intellectual ambiance and love of books existent in the Ottoman Empire, we have to concede that Constantinople was the foremost of the Ottoman capital cities.
Books and Manuscripts in the Ottoman Empire According to Sosa, in sixteenth-century Algiers, a city mainly engaged in corsair and merchant activities, learning was probably limited to the primary schools where children learned the Koran by heart. In contrast, several of the Turkish admirals attached to the Porte were known for their scientific achievements and literary endeavors.
Although only a small minority of the Ottoman population could read, nearly all composed poetry and participated in public contests reciting their compositions. One hundred and fifty fine poets adorned this literary reign at Constantinople. Three hundred more illuminated the distant provinces of the empire. Many of these books were held in the religious libraries attached to the great mosques or the imperial libraries founded by the sultans and their entourage. Libraries and markets overflow with them. Books from every country in the world arrive in the city.
The coffeehouses, or kahvehane, that opened in Istanbul in with immediate success showed this Ottoman penchant for bookish culture. Some read books and elegant treatises, others played backgammon and chess. Others brought their barely-finished poems and engaged in discussions regarding art quoted by Hitzel, In the Maghrib, the sixteenth century brought about internal wars among aggressive rulers. The most important cities, such as Fez, Marrakesh, Tlemcen, Algiers, and Tunis, constituted themselves into independent territories, while the countryside was in the hands of Berber and Arab tribes who often attacked travelers.
As discussed in chapter 1, the turn of the century also delivered the first batch of Spanish and Portuguese conquerors into the region. These incursions created the circumstances that enabled the Ottoman Turks, posing as the defenders of Islamic lands against the invasive banners of Christianity, to establish a foothold on the Maghribi coast and to impose themselves as the rulers of the Hafsid and Zayyanid states.
The intervention of Muslim and Christian corsairs who allied themselves with the two great powers that dominated the Mediterranean aggravated the anarchy that reigned in these territories. As a result, intellectual life in the region suffered enormously. The sclerosis of intellectual activities revealed itself through the general abandonment of the profane sciences, while, in the religious ones, the rigid stand of the marabouts holy men and their followers reflected the spirit of intolerance that swept over the region at the end of the fifteenth century, one that lasted until the eighteenth century with the wars of Muslim and Christian privateers Abun-Nasr, — With every retreat of Islam in Spain, the Maghrib collected a good number of Andalusian intellectuals.
Following the Conquest of Granada, his family emigrated to Fez, then the seat of Arabic learning. At the time, there was an abundance of Arabic scholars in Fez who studied not only the best writers in their own language but also translations of the Greek and Roman authors. Leo studied Arabic letters in one of the two schools of the city described in his work, besides Koranic theology and grammar, rhetoric, poetics, law, philosophy, and history.
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During his stay in Italy, Leo taught Arabic at Bologna and wrote other scholarly works. His description of the great city of Fez is among the most enchanting pieces of his work. Endowed with running water that flowed abundantly through the city, Fez was also graced by two- and three-story houses, many public baths with running hot and cold water, hospitals, and hotels, as well as more than seven hundred mosques and oratories.
At the turn of the sixteenth century, there were approximately thirty bookstores in Fez, among the multiple stores surrounding the great mosque Africa, I: Although the Almohads built schools and libraries and brought from Spain the most illustrious scholars, philosophers, and physicians to Marrakesh, such as Ibn Rushd Averroes , who died in Fez in , these great traditions did not survive the dynasty. There, each week, after the prayer, there was an auction sale of books and ancient manuscripts. This merchandise was intensely sought, and all tried to auction it at the greatest prices.
Castelane instead sailed for France with the treasures. The greatest part of this booty was the private library of the sultan, which contained about four thousand books and exquisite manuscripts collected by his father. In , the books were deposited in El Escorial, where they remain even today, constituting one of the most important Arabic funds of Europe.
Most of the books found in the region were probably Islamic religious treatises, which were barred from the Christians. These books were written in Arabic, a language that most Christians did not know how to read. Very few Christian slaves, in fact, took it on themselves to learn Turkish or Arabic. John who became the grand master of the Order of Malta in the s — These cases, however, seem to be rare.
It was the renegade, in fact, known for his knowledge of various languages and cultures, who generally crossed geographical and religious boundaries, serving as translator, secretary, or agent for various Maghribi or European rulers. It is fair to surmise that some of the educated Christian slaves attempted to obtain those hardto-find books, either by buying them from the corsairs or, like Antonio de Sosa, by borrowing them from other educated Christians or Muslims.
The obsession with books in Algiers is suggested by the anecdote involving Sosa, mentioned above. The Algerians apparently believed that letting a Christian slave touch the Koran even with a finger was a grave sin, claims Sosa, and that reading before him, so that he could hear what the sacred text said, was even a worse crime.
In spite of these difficulties, Sosa was able to obtain books, as well as ink, pen, and paper in sufficient quantities to consign the monumental historical and ethnological information contained in Topographia, e historia general de Argel, including his Dialogues on captivity. A doctor in both law and canon law, Ruffino de Chiambery was captured in the attack on the forts of La Goleta and Tunis by the Turks in September These encounters with books, pen, and paper open new questions in relation to the quotidian experiences of captive Cervantes. Was he, like his friend Sosa, able to write and obtain books, or like Sosa and Ruffino de Chiambery, capable of acquiring ink, pen, and paper for his compositions?
It includes a copious collection of testimonies assembled by Cervantes as a defense against the slander campaign launched by Dr. It is believed that this defrocked Dominican betrayed the group of fugitives out of resentment because he was not invited, or accepted, as part of the escapees Canavaggio, Cervantes, After the treason, Blanco de Paz apparently disseminated vicious rumors in relation to Cervantes and intimated that he was elaborating a report on these and other matters for the Spanish Inquisition, which he claimed to represent in Algiers.
A vengeful and resentful man, Blanco de Paz appeared to be also a cheat—various witnesses speak of bribes offered to concoct malicious reports—and a liar who shamelessly accused captive Dr. As a renegade, Blanco de Paz had much to gain from this betrayal, which could have earned him the favor of the Algerian ruler.
We must remember, however, that most of the men who testified in this inquiry were involved in the escape attempt organized by Cervantes. The betrayal, then, could have had grave consequences for them, including the death sentence. Their resentment and anger against this Judas is thus understandable. As Dr. Concomitantly, if there was a general consensus among these men in relation to Blanco de Paz, there also was a rare agreement that transcended simple friendship and concerted obligations regarding captive Miguel de Cervantes.
Having just arrived in August , Benavides could testify only about Cervantes as a person, because he did not know the facts of his captivity. He claims that on reaching Algiers, he negotiated his ransom and proceeded to rescue himself. Luego [. And thus, this witness looked for him and found him. Miguel de Cervantes, making use of his good manners, offered his help and his lodgings, clothes and money to help him; and thus, Cervantes took him with him and kept him in his company, where they presently eat together, and they are in a lodging where Cervantes is very kind to him.
Accordingly, this witness found a father and a mother, because he was new to the land, until God wills that there would be ships leaving for Spain, for both of them, himself and the said Miguel de Cervantes, who is also ransomed and free. This enabled Cervantes to help Benavides with clothes and moneys and to offer him his hospitality.
If it often seems that Lopino is struggling with words, barely confirming what is asked of him, in a crude language made of set phrases, the situation changes when questions of honor and appreciation of his own worth are asked. Porque [. Porque cierto, [. And thus,. And when this witness saw this so clearly, he felt a certain envy to see how well the said Miguel de Cervantes behaved and knew how to behave.
For certainly,. Probably because of his humble origins on the island of Sardinia, Captain Lopino seemed fascinated by the world of influential men, to which he would have liked to accede. John Fray Antonio de Toledo—who assisted the Cervantes brothers in the second escape attempt— to learned scholars and poets, such as Dr. Sosa and Antonio Veneziano, down to the popular strata of Christian galley slaves and renegades from different Mediterranean countries.
As many testimonies reveal, these disparate groups of men accorded their respect, friendship, and even their love to the captive Cervantes. Soon, the clamor was that only Thieu's resignation would appease the North Vietnamese and stave off the impending blood bath. In the years after the war, Thieu shunned almost all requests for interviews.
He re-emerged nearly two decades later in to denounce rapprochement between the United States and the Communist government in Vietnam. But a year later, his tone had changed. Thieu spoke of his willingness to take part in national reconciliation talks that would allow members of the Vietnamese exile community to go home.
The Vietnamese showed no interest in having him act as a go-between. They were killed by potassium cyanide that had been placed Tylenol capsules and then the bottles put in several Chicago area supermarkets. One of the victims I suppose Mary Reiner was a mother who had just given birth. The case of the three Janus family members was especially tragic: one of them Adam I suppose died first, no one yet knew from what cause, the other two, to relieve the symptoms they were suffering caused by grief, took Tylenol capsules from the same bottle.
The police have been unable to find who was the killer. In Chicago, Illinois, people began to die from cyanide poisoning, but the source of the poison remained a mystery for two days and five more deaths. On October 1, authorities determined that someone bought or stole bottles of Tylenol, laced the popular acetaminophen painkiller with cyanide poison, and replaced the contaminated containers on store shelves around the city.
A suspect for the murders was never found, but the tragedy led to the introduction of safety seals on most consumer projects. Henrich Himmler sends four strike squads to exterminate Soviet Jewish civilians and other "undesirables. Between and , thousands of Gypsies and Soviet prisoners of war would be executed at the Babi Yar ravine in a similar manner. Of its Jewish population of ', some ' had managed to flee before the Germans took the city.
Shortly after the German takeover, from 24 to 28 September , a considerable number of buildings the city center, which were being used by German military administration and the army, were blown up; many Germans as well as local inhabitants were killed in the explosions. After the war, it was learned that the sabotage operation had been the work of NKVD Soviet security police detachment that had been left behind in the city for that purpose.
On 26 September, the Germans held a meeting at which it was decided that in retaliation for the attacks on the German-held installations, the Jews of Kiev would all be put to death. Participating in the meeting were the military governor, Maj. The implementation of the decision to kill all the Jews of Kiev was entrusted to Sonderkommando 4a.
The unit was reinforced by police battalions Nos. On 28 September, notices were posted in the city ordering the Jews to appear the following morning, 29 September, at at the corner of Melnik and Dekhtyarev streets; they were being assembled there, so the notice said, for their resettlement in new locations.
The text had been prepared by Propaganda Company No. Early on 29 September, masses of Jews repor to the appointed spot. They are directed to proceed along Melnik Street toward the Jewish cemetery at the southern end of the Babi Yar ravine and into an area comprising the cemetery itself and a part of the Babi Yar ravine.
The area is cordoned off by a barbed-wire fence and guarded by Sonderkommando police and Waffen-SS men, a well as by Ukrainian policemen. As the Jews approach the ravine, they are forced to hand over all the valuables in their possession, to take off all their clothes, and to advance toward the ravine edge, in groups of ten. When they reach the edge, they are gunned down by automatic fire.
The shooting is done by several squads of SD and Sipo personnel, police, and Waffen-SS men of the Sonderkommando unit, the squads relieving one another every few hours. When the day ends, the bodies are covered with a thin layer of soil. According to official reports of the Einsatzgruppe, in two days of shooting 29 September and 30 September , 33' Jews are murdered. In the months that followed, many more thousands of Jews wauld be seized, taken to Babi Yar, and shot.
Among the general population there were some who helped Jews go into hiding, but there were also a significant number who informed on them to the Germans. Babi Yar served as a slaughterhouse for non-Jews as well, such as Gypsies and Soviet prisoners of war.
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According to the estimate given by the Soviet research commission on Nazi crimes, ' persons were murdered at Babi Yar. From 18 August to 19 September , as the Red Army was advancing, the Germans headed by Blobel erased traces by removing the corpses and incenarating them in furnaces made of the tombstones of the nearby Jewish cemetery. For 6 weeks a group of chained prisoners, Jews and Soviet prisoners of war, doomed to death as well, was forced to perform the operation. On 29 September , the forced-laborers at Babi Yar revolt and break out. Only 14 survived. Not until was a monument erected at Babi Yar, and it does not mention Jews.
No monument stands over Babi Yar. A steep cliff only, like the rudest headstone. I am afraid. Today, I am as old As the entire Jewish race itself. I see myself an ancient Israelite. I wander o'er the roads of ancient Egypt And here, upon the cross, I perish, tortured And even now, I bear the marks of nails. It seems to me that Dreyfus is myself. The Philistines betrayed me - and now judge.
I'm in a cage. Surrounded and trapped, I'm persecuted, spat on, slandered, and The dainty dollies in their Brussels frills Squeal, as they stab umbrellas at my face. I'm thrown back by a boot, I have no strength left, In vain I beg the rabble of pogrom, To jeers of "Kill the Jews, and save our Russia! O, Russia of my heart, I know that you Are international, by inner nature. But often those whose hands are steeped in filth Abused your purest name, in name of hatred.
I know the kindness of my native land. How vile, that without the slightest quiver The antisemites have proclaimed themselves The "Union of the Russian People! It seems to me that I am Anna Frank, Transparent, as the thinnest branch in April, And I'm in love, and have no need of phrases, But only that we gaze into each other's eyes. How little one can see, or even sense!
Chronology of Cervantes
Leaves are forbidden, so is sky, But much is still allowed - very gently In darkened rooms each other to embrace. She's coming soon. Quickly, your lips! Here, silently, all screams, and, hat in hand, I feel my hair changing shade to gray. And I myself, like one long soundless scream Above the thousands of thousands interred, I'm every old man executed here, As I am every child murdered here. No fiber of my body will forget this. May "Internationale" thunder and ring When, for all time, is buried and forgotten The last of antisemites on this earth.
There is no Jewish blood that's blood of mine, But, hated with a passion that's corrosive Am I by antisemites like a Jew. And that is why I call myself a Russian! He worked on the theory of fields. He is best known for the engine that bears his name, but few know that he was also a respected engineer, a linguist, a social theorist, and a connoisseur of the arts.
But it was his diesel engine that changed the world, proving more efficient than steam and used on everything from locomotives to boats, eventually revolutionizing the automobile later in the century. After attending Hampden-Sydney College — , Price studied law. In he moved with his family from Virginia to Missouri, where he entered public life.
He served in the state legislature from to and again from to , the latter period as speaker of the House. In Price won a seat in the US House of Representatives, but he failed to win renomination and resigned on 26 August , to enlist as a colonel in the Missouri infantry. He rose to the rank of brigadier general during the Mexican War and was appointed military governor of Chihuahua. He returned to Missouri after the war and in was elected governor. A conditional Union supporter, he did not initially advocate secession as the sectional conflict intensified.
But in June , having been given command of the state militia, he organized a small army of pro-Confederate troops in southwestern Missouri. A subsequent victory over Union forces at the Battle of Wilson's Creek 10 Aug established Price as a military commander, and in April he and his troops were officially incorporated into the Confederate Army. But from the summer of to the end of the Civil War, Price suffered a series of defeats, and a dubious and costly victory at Pilot Knob Sep The collapse of the Confederacy found him in retreat on the plains of Texas, and he exiled himself to Mexico for a short time.
Following the defeat and execution of Emperor Maximilian [06 Jul — 19 Jun ], however, Price returned to Missouri. But they kept the pressure on Lee and prevented him from sending reinforcements to the beleaguered General Jubal Early, who was fighting against General Philip Sheridan in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Butler had carefully scouted the network of Confederate fortifications and determined that there were weaknesses. Butler was correct about the weakness of the Richmond defenses, which were significantly undermanned since most of Lee's force was protecting Petersburg. The Confederate defenders of New Market Heights soon realized that the Yankee attack threatened to overrun their position.
After a half-hour battle, they retreated closer to Richmond. At nearby Fort Harrison, Ord's troops swarmed over the walls of the fort and scattered the inexperienced defenders. Despite the initial success, the Union attack became bogged down.
The leading units of the attack suffered significant casualties, including many officers. The Confederate defenses were deep, and the Yankees faced another set of fortifications. Butler instructed his men to secure the captured territory before renewing the attack.
That night, Lee moved several brigades from Petersburg for an unsuccessful counterattack on 30 September. In the end, Union soldiers bent the Richmond defenses but did not break them. Yankee casualties totaled of the 20' soldiers engaged, while the Confederates lost 2' of 11' engaged. The stalemate continued until the following spring. Earlier he had been beaten to the ground and assailed several times with knotted sticks and fists, had his hair, beard and nails torn off and his forefingers bitten through.
So he studied surgery and found his way to Canada, where he offered his services to the missionaries. He developed the mathematical statistics required to clarify a large class of subatomic phenomena, discovered neutron-induced radioactivity, and directed the first controlled chain reaction involving nuclear fission.